The calculator below is used for Clapeyron-Mendeleev equation or state of ideal gas equation problems. Some of theory is placed below the calculator. There are also some examples of typical problems below.
Clapeyron-Mendeleev equation problem examples
There is oxygen at 2.3 atmospheres and 23 degrees Celsius in a 2.6-litre flask.
Task: how much oxygen is in a flask?
- Some amount of helium at 78 degrees Celsius and 45.6 atmospheres pressure occupies a volume of 16.5 liters.
Task: What's the volume of this gas at normal conditions? (Note that normal conditions are the pressure of 1 atmosphere and 0 degrees Celsius temperature.
We can enter this data in the calculator and choose what we want to find - number of moles, new volume, temperature or pressure, then input remaining data if needed and get a result.
Now some formulas
P – gas pressure (e.g. in atmospheres)
V – gas volume (in liters);
T – gas temperature (in Kelvins);
R – gas constant (0,0821 l·atm/mol·K).
Gas constant is 8,314 J/K·mol if SI is used.
As m - mass of gas is in (kg) and M - molar mass of gas in kg/mol then m/M - number of moles of a gas and the equation can be written as
where n - number of moles
And it's easy to notice that the ratio
is a constant value for the same amount of moles.
And this pattern was empirically established before the conclusion of the equation. These are so-called gas laws - Boyle–Mariotte law, Gay-Lussac law, Charles law.
Boyle–Mariotte law says:
For a fixed amount of an ideal gas kept at a fixed temperature, pressure and volume are inversely proportional
For a given mass m with a constant pressure P the gas volume is linearly dependent on the temperature
For a given mass m with a constant volume V the gas pressure is linearly dependent on the temperature.
Looking at the equation, it is easy to verify the validity of these laws.
Clapeyron-Mendeleev equation, as well as the experimental laws of Boyle–Mariotte, Gay-Lussac and Charles, are valid for a wide range of pressure, volume and temperature. I.e. in many cases these laws are suitable for practical use. But do not forget that when the pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure by 300-400 times or temperatures are very high, there are deviations in these laws.
Actually, the ideal gas is called "ideal" because it has no deviations from these laws.